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Prostate Cancer

The prostate is a small gland in the pelvis and is part of the male reproductive system. About the size of a walnut, it’s located between the penis and the bladder, and surrounds the urethra. The main function of the prostate is to produce a thick white fluid that creates semen when mixed with the sperm produced by the testicles

When there is an abnormal replication of cells in this region then it becomes cancerous

Prostate cancer represents the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Prostate cancer incidence increases as men age; as many as 60% of men over 65 years of age may be diagnosed with prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is most often diagnosed in men aged 65-74 years; median age at diagnosis is 66 years.

Risk factors- ethnicity, age, family history and genetic predisposition, family history of breast cancer, Tobacco smoking, nutritional supplementation and/or deficiency, activity, and diet, obesity

Signs and symptoms

Most patients presenting with prostate cancer are asymptomatic. Local symptoms associated with prostate cancer can include Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)

Hematuria Hematospermia Erectile dysfunction Urinary retention

However, those symptoms are generally not caused by prostate cancer. Physical examination alone cannot reliably differentiate benign prostatic disease from cancer.

Symptoms of advanced disease: Weight loss and loss of appetite Anemia, Bone pain, with or without pathologic fracture Neurologic deficits from spinal cord compression

Lower extremity pain and edema Diagnosis

Elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level: No PSA level guarantees the absence of prostate cancer

Abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) findings: DRE is examiner-dependent, and serial examinations over time are best for most patients diagnosed with prostate cancer have normal DRE results but abnormal PSA readings

Management

Localized prostate cancer

Standard treatments for clinically localized prostate cancer include the following: Watchful waiting

Active surveillance

Radical prostatectomy Radiation therapy Emerging treatments with limited long-term data include targeted therapy and whole-gland ablation.

Non-localized or recurrent prostate cancer

Prostate cancer may recur in up to a third of men after definitive local therapy. This disease state is now subdivided into castrate-sensitive or castrate-resistant locally recurrent prostate cancer and castrate-sensitive or castrate-resistant metastatic prostate cancer. These disease states are rarely curable, but recent advances in the understanding of salvage radiation therapy, chemo hormonal therapy, androgen blockade, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition has greatly prolonged survival for these men.

Prevention

Lifestyle modifications like smoking cessation, exercise and weight control

Maintain healthy diet- Eat lots of fruits and veggies, Studies suggest that eating fewer carbohydrates affects insulin, which can influence cancer cell growth (cut down on carbohydrates food)

Drink coffee and green tea-Green tea is packed with antioxidants called catechins and polyphenols that decrease inflammation and may protect against cancer cell formation. It’s always a good idea to check with a healthcare provider or assess your caffeine intake before increasing how much coffee or tea you consume

Ejaculate more often: Studies suggests ejaculating more frequently (whether from sex or

masturbation) may have a hand in preventing prostate cancer

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